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National Arms, part 13, Luxembourg.

Luxembourg Arms
Luxembourg is officially known as the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg and is situated between Belgium France and Germany. It has a population of 500,000 and an area of approximately 1,000 square miles. Luxembourg lies on the cultural divide between Germanic Europe and Romantic Europe, the official languages are French, German, and Luxembourgish. Siegfried, Count of Ardennes seized Luxembourg Castle around 963, and around this Castle the town of Luxembourg gradually developed. In the 12th century Henry the Blind, Count of Namur, ruled Luxembourg. When Henry died in 1196 the lands ruled by him were split amongst his children, and his daughter Ermesinde inherited Luxembourg. In the year 1214 Ermesinde married Walram III of Limburg, he changed the lion of the Limburg Arms to a double tailed Lion to symbolize that he now ruled two regions. Their son Henry the Blonde, who inherited Luxembourg only, added blue bars behind the double tailed lion indicating that he was starting a new Dynasty. These Arms remained largely unchanged until the late 19th century.

In the intervening centuries the number of blue bars on the Coat of Arms varied from 4 to 14. The Lion also changed considerably over time, the Crown at the top was not always used and not all Counts of Luxembourg chose to use a double tailed Lion. The main composition of the Arms remained unchanged until 1890. In 1815 the Grand Duchy became independent within the Union of the Netherlands and the Grand Duke became the King of the Netherlands. In 1830 Luxembourg was part of the Belgian Revolution when Belgium became independent of the Netherlands. This resulted in a splitting of Luxembourg with the Western part becoming part of Belgium as the province of Luxembourg.
Luxembourg coat of armsThe eastern part remained a Grand Duchy within the Netherlands. When King William III died in 1890 without a son, his daughter Wilhelmina became Queen of the Netherlands. Laws forbidding a woman becoming head of state were in effect in Luxembourg and she was unable to become regent there. Adolf of the House of Nassau became Grand Duke of Luxembourg House of Nassau. He was at the time the head of another House of Nassau. Adolf adopted several different Coats of Arms for Luxembourg during his tenure as Grand Duke. The first one from 1890-1898 were the old Luxembourg Arms with an escutcheon ( small shield) for the House of Nassau. In 1898 he changed these arms to a quartered shield, 1st and 4th quarters House of Nassau Arms and 2nd and 3rd quarters the Arms of Luxembourg. The Arms of the Grand Duchy were finally formalized in 1972 as the single double tailed Lion on the field of blue bars and officially became the National Arms


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