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National Arms, part 13, Luxembourg.

LUXEMBOURG ARMS Luxembourg is officially known as the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg and is situated between Belgium France and Germany. It has a population of 500,000 and an area of approximately 1,000 square miles. Luxembourg lies on the cultural divide between Germanic Europe and Romantic Europe, the official languages are French, German, and Luxembourgish. Siegfried, Count of Ardennes seized Luxembourg Castle around 963, and around this Castle the town of Luxembourg gradually developed. In the 12th century Henry the Blind, Count of Namur, ruled Luxembourg. When Henry died in 1196 the lands ruled by him were split amongst his children, and his daughter Ermesinde inherited Luxembourg. In the year 1214 Ermesinde married Walram III of Limburg, he changed the lion...

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National Arms, part 3

HESSEN, GERMANY COAT OF ARMS The National Arms of England remained relatively unchanged until the end of the 16th century. In 1603 Queen Elizabeth I died and the new sovereign was James VI of Scotland who succeeded Elizabeth as James I. He added to the Royal Arms quarterings for Scotland and Ireland, the Harp of Ireland and the Lion of Scotland. The shield then bore four quarters; in the first and fourth appeared the arms of his predecessor Queen Elizabeth I, in the second the Arms of Scotland and in the third the Arms of Ireland. The crest remained the English lion set upon the crown, while the unicorn of Scotland replaced the dragon supporter. The next monarch King Charles...

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