The English surname Tilghman is of matronymic origin meaning son of, or descendant of Matilda. The surname was originally a short or nickname form of "Matilda", a baptismal name of popularity, perhaps not surprisingly as Queen Matilda was the spouse of William The Conquerer. The name, but not as a surname, was first recorded in 1246 when "Tilla" appears in the Assize Rolls of Lancaster. The first known surname recordings taken from surviving charters of the period are those of William Tyl of Worcester, and by coincidence, Richard Tille of Sussex, both in the year 1327. A notable bearer of the name is the American Civil War confederate General Lloyd Tilghman (1816-1863) from Maryland.