The English surname Marshall, also found in Ireland and Scotland, is a status name or occupational name from Middle English, Old French maresc(h)al ‘marshal’. Originally it denoted a man who looked after horses, but by the heyday of medieval surname formation it denoted on the one hand one of the most important servants in a great household (in the royal household a high official of state, one with military responsibilities), and on the other a humble shoeing smith or farrier. The first recorded spelling of the family name is believed to be that of Godfridus Marescal. This was dated 1086, in the famous Domesday Book for the county of Wiltshire. Godfridus was a Frenchman, who was granted lands in England by King William 1st, following the successful conquest of 1066. Today there are approximately 178,000 bearers of the surname Marshall living in The United States.
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